Everything You Need to Know: Different Types of Earphone Drivers in IEMs

Everything You Need to Know: Different Types of Earphone Drivers in IEMs

Driver units are the heart of every audio transducer, whether in-ear monitors, headphones, or speakers. The sound is generated by these drivers, which constitute the heart of the transducer. The current market makes use of five distinct kinds of audio drivers. Today, we'll go through the inner workings of all five distinct audio driver types. In that case, let's get started.

What Are Headphone Drivers?

Drivers are headphone speakers, which vibrate to 'drive' air into the ear canal. The sound you hear in the headphones is produced by the driven air.

The "drivers" of headphones, sometimes called "transducers," are the parts of the headphones responsible for transforming the electrical energy into audible sound waves. The size of the driver needed to power a set of headphones or a pair of speakers varies.

Do Headphone Driver Dimensions Matter?

The size of the driver in your headphones will affect the sound quality. While bigger drivers often provide greater sound, this is only sometimes the case.

Because they can move more air particles, larger drives may produce louder noises. In addition, they can move the same quantity of air without producing as much vibration as smaller drives.

The ability of your headphones to generate changes in air pressure is proportional to the volume of air that is moved.

A greater range of audible frequencies (including more extreme highs and lower bass) results from a greater change in pressure. This broad range of frequencies provides the impression that bigger drivers produce greater sound and more dynamic bass.

However, the physical constraints of smaller motors restrict them from vibrating more than a certain number of air molecules.

While it's true that larger drivers may generate 'better' bass, that improvement results from several other elements coming together.

Dynamic driver

Manufacturers widely use dynamic drivers because of their inexpensive cost and broad frequency coverage. Since the diaphragm of dynamic drivers is free to move more freely, the resulting bass is more responsive, albeit not the cleanest or most detailed.

The dynamic driver is often used in popular headphones like the Sennheiser HD800 and Focal Stella because of its wide availability and adaptability.

How do dynamic drivers work?

In a dynamic driver, the voice coil is enclosed by the magnet. It also has a close relationship with the diaphragm. The voice coil generates an electromagnetic field when electricity flows through it.

The permanent magnet begins vibrating constantly as it is continually attracted to and repelled by the now-magnetic voice coil.

As the coil vibrates, the diaphragm moves up and down, changing the pressure in the air and producing sound. Dynamic drivers use one of the simplest techniques to achieve great loudness with less power (or lower impedance).

Planar magnetic driver

Some other names for planar magnetic drivers are isodynamic, mainplane, and Ortho dynamic. In contrast to more conventional headphones, which often feature round cutouts for the ears, headphones with planar magnetic drivers have square or rectangular holes.

Open-back headphones like the Audeze LCD-5 and HiFiMan HE1000se often employ planar magnetic drivers. However, in-ear monitors (IEMs) with planar magnetic drivers have begun appearing recently, such as the Audeze LCD-i3 and the Obravo ERIB-2A Earphones.

How do planar magnetic drivers work?

Planar magnetic drivers, like dynamic drivers, create sound using magnetic fields. The magnets' ability to move the diaphragm and the diaphragm's form are the main distinguishing features.

Diaphragm motion in planar magnetic drivers is achieved without the need for coils. Instead, they sandwich a thin electrical wire between two similarly sized magnets. Diaphragm vibration is caused by electromagnetic conductor movement towards and away from permanent magnets.

Headphones with dynamic or balanced armature drivers are more common and affordable, but their smaller magnet sizes make them cumbersome to wear.

Electro-Static Drivers: -

In the world of sound production, electrostatics is not a novel concept. In-ear monitors (IEMs) have just begun utilizing this technology. However, headphones have been used for some time because of their excellent high-end response. In the past, EST drivers in full-sized cans needed their external energizers to function effectively. However, newer, smaller EST drivers designed for IEMs eliminate this need. Shozy Tape Pro, Kinera Nanna, and Kinera Baldr are just a few of the newest products that utilize EST drivers.

Working Mechanism: -

Static electricity is the basis for the operation of electrostatic drivers. They use a diaphragm membrane that is very thin between two electrodes. The rapid movement of the diaphragm between the electrodes results in a very high-resolution signal. These drivers are legendary for their superb high-frequency response, reproducing the finest details with pinpoint accuracy. Compared to BA and DD IEMs, they have a higher power need and can thus typically scale with higher quality sources (Hi-res players, Amps).

Electrostatic drives work on the principle of static electricity. Between two electrodes, they utilize a very thin diaphragm membrane. A signal with extremely high resolution is produced by the diaphragm moving quickly between the electrodes. These speakers are renowned for their outstanding high-frequency response, reproducing the smallest details with pin-point precision. They require more power than BA and DD IEMs do, therefore they can often scale with sources of greater quality (Hi-res players, Amps).

Bone Conduction Driver: -

The most cutting-edge technology right now is bone conduction. The music is delivered by vibrating the bones of the user's face rather than by forcing the earphone driver into the ear canal. They are placed on the facial bones about an inch in front of the ears. The most up-to-date kind of earphone to use this driver is the Unique Melody Mest, which incorporates a bone conduction driver within the ear shells' faceplate. The faceplates vibrate to provide an audible effect.

Working Mechanism: -

Bone conduction drivers use vibrations to transmit sound. It transforms audible sound into vibrations that, when applied to the skull close to the ear, go straight to the cochlea and allow us to hear. This is an emerging technology, and we look forward to seeing more devices that use it.

In conclusion, these are the many kinds of drivers now used by various manufacturers to deliver high-quality earbuds and headphones. We apologies if there were any unanswered queries about the various categories of drivers. Get in touch with us if you have any more questions.